The layout of cities has real implications for how people move around, and if you’re poor and have to travel a far distance these costs can mount very quickly. The same applies for food, which if grown closer to cities is often cheaper. Chapter 3 of The Food Dialogues Report written by Leonie Joubert and published by Cape Town Partnership and Oranjezicht City Farm, explains why city design matters to urban farming.
A tale of two cities
The reality of a Thembisa mother, whose story features in the National Planning Commission’s Vision for 2030, is such: she travels sometimes five hours a day, too and from her job in Brummeria. She spends half her monthly income to pay for this transport. She has to use multiple taxis and trains and walks long distances on foot.
Now consider what it’s like for all those similarly time- and cash-strapped parents who have to return home each night and make sure their children go to bed on a filling meal.
Where in that long day must they find the time to buy the groceries, haul them home and then prepare the main meal of the day? This is one reason why many people might choose food that’s fast and easy to prepare, which might be highly processed just to fill the belly and drive out hunger, but not feed the body with the real nutrients it needs.
This is the reality for many people living in South Africa’s cities, which still echo with the imprint of the apartheid state’s segregationist planning that separated white, from coloured, from black. Cape Town is no different, and this notion of separate development is what turned the Cape Flats into what was once called the ‘dumping ground’ for black people in the city. The racist policy pushed the artisan and working classes out onto the edges of the city, creating enclaves of poverty that still exist today.
This means poorer people have to travel greater distances to get to and from work, something that costs them enormously in both time and money. Economics professor with the University of Cape Town’s (UCT) Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), Anthony Black reminds us that the apartheid-era design of our cities means that finding employment and commuting to work are difficult and costly for poorer people, and effectively constitute a tax on the poor and become a barrier to employment.
The sick city
The city makes us fat and sick. The rising rates of obesity in South Africa mirror similar trends around the world. In the past, the medical community blamed the individual for eating badly and not exercising. But there has been a sea change in attitude regarding this. The medical journal, The Lancet, in its special report on obesity in 2011, says rising obesity is the normal response of normal people to an abnormal environment.
What is it about the modern urban world that creates this ‘obesogenic’ environment? It has to do with:
- The sprawling layout of the city that pushes us into automated transport and discourages walking and cycling. Also, work and recreation is often sedentary with machines doing most of the ‘heavy lifting’ these days.
- The kind of food available is often cheap, highly processed and energy dense, and is high in sugar and refined carbohydrates.
- Cultural attitudes towards foods often encourage us to buy ‘sophisticated’ branded foods, which enables the ‘nutritional transition’ to the Western industrialised diet.
- Our dependence on these foods, which is being seen as addictive behaviour.
To fix the problem, we need to look at the way the city, our food and its inhabitants relate to one another. That’s not to say that the individual isn’t responsible for his or her lifestyle and food choices, but as the UK’s House of Lords report on rising obesity in Britain put it, the modern urban life makes it too hard to make the right food and lifestyle choices, and too easy to make the wrong ones.
If we only focus on individual behaviour as the root of the epidemic, we’ll only focus on education and encouraging personal behaviour change as the solution, and it is unlikely to have much success. There isn’t a quick fix and we need to take a more sophisticated view of things, particularly as people continue to move to the city. Right now, 60% of South Africans live in cities and this is likely to increase considerably in the future.
Planning for a healthier city
Mzukisi Zele, from the civil society organisation Tyisa Nabanye, says where he grew up in the rural Eastern Cape, there was ‘food everywhere’. But when he moved to Cape Town, he found that people wanted to be employed, rather than work at home in order to grow their own food.
He started out selling fruit and vegetables as a vendor in Philippi, but what he really wanted was to become a farmer. Since then he has infused an ethos of respecting the land, taking care of it and of people. It’s an ethos where surplus is shared and where people use technology that isn’t harmful to the environment, thereby spreading the wisdom to other young people so they can learn self-reliance.
When he asks kids in schools where spinach comes from, they often say ‘from the store or from Shoprite’. That’s something Mzu’s organisation hopes to change, as it trains up youngsters in food gardening from their plot in Tamboerskloof, very close to the OZCF.
For Mzu, access to land and water are two of the biggest challenges for township families who want to grow their own food.
‘Urban planners need to think about how to design the city and living spaces to accommodate food growing. People in the City Bowl may not be food insecure, but people on the Cape Flats are. Homes are small, with confined gardens,’ he says. ‘There are public open spaces but they aren’t designated for community gardens. We need to address that at a city planning level.’
Tyisa faces an uncertain future as it is on land that is under threat of development and the operation has no formal lease.
- Read: Feeding the Mother City by Bulelwa Makalima-Ngewana
Read more from the Food Dialogues Report
- Food security: Why city layout matters
- Food shopping: A guide for the flummoxed
- Food sovereignty: Politics and veggies in Cape Town
- Food culture: A city is what it eats
- Food gardens: The secret to success
- Food nutrition: The real cost of bad eating
- Food ecosystem: Greening up our plates
- Nutritious food? Why money matters
This article first appeared in the the Food Dialogues Report. Click on the link to download the PDF (36mb), or flip through it on Issuu.